Located inside our head, the brain is the most complex organ and is the center of the nervous system that effectively aids humans to perform day-to-day functions. It consists of numerous nerves that makes trillions of connections daily with other nerves present in our body in order to generate stimulus and perform an action accordingly.
Parts of the Brain
- Cortex – It is the outermost layer of brain that controls voluntary movements and the thought process
- Brain Stem – Placed between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain, it controls functions like eating, sleeping, etc.
- Basal Ganglia – It is inside the center of the brain and is a cluster that communicates messages to and from other brain areas.
- Cerebellum – It is the backbone of the brain that coordinates and balances the function of the brain.
Functions of the Brain
In order to generate a particular action, the brain first collects information from the sensory organs by means of neurotransmitters that send signals from the nerves located in that particular body part to the nerves located in the center of the brain. It then sorts out the information extracted combining it with the current need and generates a response pattern to carry out the desired action accordingly.
- Information Processing – Just like how computer processes information and carries out different tasks, the brain is also built the same way to process information and perform a suitable action
- Insight – The brain first takes information from the sensory organs which are affected by light, sound, chemicals present in the environment, temperature, etc. These sensory inputs are then used by the brain to gain insight and generate stimuli.
- Motor Movement Control – It generates movements of our body by driving connections from the brain to the spinal cord to perform certain rhythmic movements like walking, swimming, etc.
- Impulse – Basic needs like sleeping and eating are controlled by the brain by following a specific cycle time pattern of circadian rhythms.
- Learning, Memory and Attention – Last, but not the least, various connections between nerves and the brain determine our memory power and intellectual capacity.